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Understanding how diabetes weakens bones

Photo of a leg in a plaster cast
Poor bone health is on the list of problems associated with diabetes. Nngkhray Kracang Chay / EyeEm via Getty Images

Diabetics break bones easily – new research is figuring out why their bones are so fragile

Lamya Karim, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth

A person with Type 2 diabetes is three times more likely to break a bone than a nondiabetic. Since the number of people with diabetes is increasing rapidly in the United States, skeletal fragility in patients with Type 2 diabetes is a growing, but little-known, public health issue.

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Sitting and diabetes in older adults: Does timing matter?

Photo of a woman sitting at a desk
Sitting can do more than give you a headache. It is linked to diabetes and obesity. Stockfour/Shutterstock.com

John Bellettiere, University of California San Diego; Andrea LaCroix, University of California San Diego, and Matthew Mclaughlin, University of Newcastle

Adults are sitting more than ever, and few pay attention to how they sit throughout the day.

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Gestational Diabetes and Pregnancy

Pregnant woman in kitchen
Photo credit CDC.Gov
US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that is first seen in a pregnant woman who did not have diabetes before she was pregnant. Some women have more than one pregnancy affected by gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes usually shows up in the middle of pregnancy. Doctors most often test for it between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy.

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Male fertility is declining

For decades, sperm counts and sperm health have been declining. Carol Yepes/Moment via Getty Images

– studies show that environmental toxins could be a reason

Ryan P. Smith, University of Virginia

In the U.S., nearly 1 in 8 couples struggles with infertility. Unfortunately, physicians like me who specialize in reproductive medicine are unable to determine the cause of male infertility around 30% to 50% of the time. There is almost nothing more disheartening than telling a couple “I don’t know” or “There’s nothing I can do to help.”

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Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity

National Institutes of Health

Nutrition and physical activity are important parts of a healthy lifestyle when you have diabetes. Along with other benefits, following a healthy meal plan and being active can help you keep your blood glucose level, also called blood sugar, in your target range. To manage your blood glucose, you need to balance what you eat and drink with physical activity and diabetes medicine, if you take any. What you choose to eat, how much you eat, and when you eat are all important in keeping your blood glucose level in the range that your health care team recommends.

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Insulin Resistance & Prediabetes

Photo of diabetes testing supplies
Image by Steve Buissinne from Pixabay

US National Institutes of Health

On this page:

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Decades into diabetes research, insulin therapy still hard to manage

Photo of syringes
Insulin syringes. From www.shutterstock.com

Israel Hodish, University of Michigan

So, your doctor told you that you need insulin therapy for your Type 2 diabetes.

This is a common problem and likely to be more so in the coming years. About 29 million people in the U.S. have Type 2 diabetes, and another 86 million have prediabetes. About one in four people with Type 2 diabetes is on insulin therapy, and another one in four likely needs to be.

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Insulin was discovered 100 years ago

Photo of young girl injecting herself with insulin
circa 1950: A diabetic girl injecting her arm with insulin. (Photo by Douglas Grundy/Three Lions/Getty Images)

Insulin was discovered 100 years ago – but it took a lot more than one scientific breakthrough to get a diabetes treatment to patients

James P. Brody, University of California, Irvine

Diabetes was a fatal disease before insulin was discovered on July 27, 1921. A century ago, people diagnosed with this metabolic disorder usually survived only a few years. Physicians had no way to treat their diabetic patients’ dangerously high blood sugar levels, which were due to a lack of the hormone insulin. Today, though, nearly 1.6 million Americans are living normal lives with Type 1 diabetes thanks to the discovery of insulin.

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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) About Extreme Heat

Photo of man enduring high temperatures
A man uses a wet towel to cool off, Tuesday, July 28, 2020 in New York. The city has opened more than 300 fire hydrants with sprinkler caps to help residents cool off during a heat wave. (AP Photo/Mark Lennihan)

US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

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What happens to the body as a result of exposure to extreme heat?

People suffer heat-related illness when the body’s temperature control system is overloaded. The body normally cools itself by sweating. But under some conditions, sweating just isn’t enough. In such cases, a person’s body temperature rises rapidly. Very high body temperatures may damage the brain or other vital organs. Several factors affect the body’s ability to cool itself during extremely hot weather. When the humidity is high, sweat will not evaporate as quickly, preventing the body from releasing heat quickly. Other conditions that can limit the ability to regulate temperature include old age, youth (age 0-4), obesity, fever, dehydration, heart disease, mental illness, poor circulation, sunburn, and prescription drug use and alcohol use.

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Rapidly rising ocean temperatures a serious threat

Phto of fish swimming among coral
Corals are made of hundreds to thousands of tiny living polyps. Khaled bin Sultan Living Oceans Foundation

Coral reef scientists raise alarm as climate change decimates ocean ecosystems vital to fish and humans

Sam Purkis, University of Miami

The Chagos Archipelago is one of the most remote, seemingly idyllic places on Earth. Coconut-covered sandy beaches with incredible bird life rim tropical islands in the Indian Ocean, hundreds of miles from any continent. Just below the waves, coral reefs stretch for miles along an underwater mountain chain.

It’s a paradise. At least it was before the heat wave.

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